Motion-triggered defensive display in a tephritid fly

Interactions between prey and predators are
often mediated by signals sent by the prey. Passive signals
such as aposematic coloration and active signals such as
pursuit deterrence signals are thought to prevent attack from
predators. In true fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae), the
defensive wing display is called supination, and studies have
shown that supination effectively reduces the chance of
being attacked by salticid predators. In this study, we
investigated the proximal causes of supination in staged
interactions in an arena. We asked whether the movement of
the display target influences the likelihood of triggering
supination in the Mexican fruit fly Anastrepha ludens
.We tested the effect of motion on fly display in three different
ways using (1) a manually moved dead spider or beetle, (2)
live bouts with a spider and a katydid and (3) video playback
experiments where movement of the display target was
controlled. Our results show that flies are more likely to
perform supination when the display target moves. The
identity of the display target did not influence display
propensity, suggesting that the supination of flies is a gen-
eralised display behaviour against any possible threat

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Source: Motion-triggered defensive display in a tephritid fly

Iberian Duet

On the page, the two languages’ vocabularies look similar. The heart is el corazón in Spanish and o coração in Portuguese. The infinitives of most common verbs are similar or identical. Yet in their spoken forms Spanish and Portuguese differ. Spanish is a rigorous, phonetic language whose letters are pronounced in the same way in every situation; Portuguese vowels, and even some consonants, are capricious, their sounds altering according to their position. Spanish has five vowel sounds; Portuguese, according to most linguists, has thirteen.

via Iberian Duet –

Roberto De Nobili

“He started wearing ochre-robes, wooden shoes; gave up meat and carried danda (stick) and kamandalu (water jug) like a Hindu monk. He started wearing Gandha (Sandal paste) and shaved his head. But he was careful enough to obtain prior permission from Archbishop stationed at Crangnoor. He engaged a Brahmin cook, ate only rice and vegetables and started sleeping on the floor. He spent time studying Sanskrit and holy books besides writing Christian psalms and prayers in Tamil. Opened a school of catechism and slowly started introducing Christian theology. He became an “Iyer” (preceptor) to local people who started venerating him for his austere life, kind manners and healing powers which he had acquired modestly”

via Roberto De Nobili.